Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.
Covers the psychological and behavioral science of human computer interaction, including cognitive architecture, memory, problem-solving, mental models, perception, action, and language. Emphasis is placed on developing an understanding of the interaction between human and machine systems and how these processes impact the design and testing of interactive technologies.
Some researchers consider Human Factors as the broadest category in which HCI is a more specific component. Human Factors is defined as the science concerned with the application of what we know about people, their abilities, characteristics, and limitations to the design of equipment they use, environments in which they function, and jobs they perform. (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, n.d.). Other names for human factors include ergonomics, applied experimental psychology, human factors engineering, and engineering psychology. The term Human Factors/Ergonomics is used to refer to the field as a whole. From this perspective more specific domains include driving, health care, aviation, and human computer interaction. Human factors draws on many disciplines including psychology; computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, and nursing.
Other researchers consider Human Computer Interaction as the broadest category in which Human Factors is a more specific component. Human-computer interaction (HCI) is defined as a multidisciplinary field of study focusing on the design of computer technology and, in particular, the interaction between humans (the users) and computers. While initially HCI focussed on the problem of a single user interacting with a desktop computer, the field since expanded to cover almost all forms of information technology design and the long-term effects that information systems will have on humans. Thus, HCI now draws from many different disciplines, including multiple branches of computer science, multiple branches of psychology, graphic design, anthropology, system engineering, sociology, linguistics and more. From this perspective, almost all technologies are computer-driven including driving, health care, and aviation, and thus all fall under HCI, with more specific areas denoted by whether the focus is on psychological issues, computer science issues, hardware, or design. Thus, HCI now draws from many different disciplines, including multiple branches of computer science, multiple branches of psychology, graphic design, anthropology, system engineering, sociology, linguistics and more.
Poorly designed human-machine interfaces can lead to many unexpected problems. A classic example is the Three Mile Island accident, a nuclear meltdown accident, where investigations concluded that the design of the human-machine interface was at least partly responsible for the disaster. Similarly, accidents in aviation have resulted from manufacturers' decisions to use non-standard flight instruments or throttle quadrant layouts: even though the new designs were proposed to be superior in basic human-machine interaction, pilots had already ingrained the "standard" layout. Thus, the conceptually good idea had unintended results.
Researchers in HCI are interested in developing design methodologies, experimenting with devices, prototyping software and hardware systems, exploring interaction paradigms, and developing models and theories of interaction.
8.Minimizing information access cost or interaction cost. When the user's attention is diverted from one location to another to access necessary information, there is an associated cost in time or effort. A display design should minimize this cost by allowing frequently accessed sources to be located at the nearest possible position. However, adequate legibility should not be sacrificed to reduce this cost.
Social computing is an interactive and collaborative behavior considered between technology and people. In recent years, there has been an explosion of social science research focusing on interactions as the unit of analysis, as there are a lot of social computing technologies that include blogs, emails, social networking, quick messaging, and various others. Much of this research draws from psychology, social psychology, and sociology. For example, one study found out that people expected a computer with a man's name to cost more than a machine with a woman's name. Other research finds that individuals perceive their interactions with computers more negatively than humans, despite behaving the same way towards these machines.
In human and computer interactions, a semantic gap usually exists between human and computer's understandings towards mutual behaviors. Ontology, as a formal representation of domain-specific knowledge, can be used to address this problem by solving the semantic ambiguities between the two parties.
Security interactions are the study of interaction between humans and computers specifically as it pertains to information security. Its aim, in plain terms, is to improve the usability of security features in end user applications.
The psychology BA/human-computer interaction MA is a multidisciplinary program offered by the psychology department and the HCI program. This innovative program combines courses in HCI and psychology to prepare you for a career in human-computer interaction, interaction design, usability engineering and user experience engineering.
Researchers in HCI are interested in developing new design methodologies, experimenting with new hardware devices, prototyping new software systems, exploring new paradigms for interaction, and developing models and theories of interaction.
A number of diverse methodologies outlining techniques for human-computer interaction design have emerged since the rise of the field in the 1980s. Most design methodologies stem from a model for how users, designers, and technical systems interact. Early methodologies, for example, treated users' cognitive processes as predictable and quantifiable and encouraged design practitioners to look to cognitive science results in areas such as memory and attention when designing user interfaces. Modern models tend to focus on a constant feedback and conversation between users, designers, and engineers and push for technical systems to be wrapped around the types of experiences users want to have, rather than wrapping user experience around a completed system.
One of the top academic conferences for new research in human-computer interaction, especially within computer science, is the annually held ACM's Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, usually referred to by its short name CHI (pronounced kai, or khai). CHI is organized by ACM SIGCHI Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction. CHI is a large, highly competitive conference, with thousands of attendants, and is quite broad in scope.
As more of our interactions and experiences are mediated by screens and technology, the way we relate to one another and our world is changing. Posting your favorite emoji may seem superficial, but such reflexes are becoming critical for understanding humanity in the 21st century.
This book aims to help lay a scientific foundation for an applied psychology concerned with the human users of interactive computer systems. It presents the results of some of the main strands of the Applied Information-Processing Psychology Project group's research.
Roberta Klatzky is the Charles J. Queenan, Jr. University Professor of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University, where she is also on the faculty of the Human-Computer Interaction Institute and the Carnegie Mellon Neuroscience Institute. She received a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from Stanford University.
In the human-computer interaction master's degree, you'll study how people interact with websites, computer systems, and software, enabling you to create intuitive interfaces that improve how we interact with and use emerging technologies.
The core courses provide knowledge and skills in the conceptual and methodological frameworks of HCI and HCI research. Emphasis is on understanding human cognition as it applies to information systems plus interaction design, interface prototyping, and usability evaluation.
As a field of research, human-computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, design, media studies, and several other fields of study. The term was popularized by Stuart K. Card, Allen Newell, and Thomas P. Moran in their seminal 1983 book, The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, although the authors first used the term in 1980 and the first known use was in 1975. The term connotes that, unlike other tools with only limited uses (such as a hammer, useful for driving nails but not much else), a computer has many uses and this takes place as an open-ended dialog between the user and the computer. The notion of dialog likens human-computer interaction to human-to-human interaction, an analogy which is crucial to theoretical considerations in the field. 781b155fdc